Part I .- Living & Non Living Characteristics



Principal Characteristics

In nature there are non-living things and living things. Rocks, air and wind are non-living things. People, animals and plants are living things.


We can recognize living things because they share the following characteristics:

1.- They are born.- All living things come from other living things.

2.- They eat. All living things need food. The type of food may vary.

3.- They grow. All living things increase in size during their lifetime. Sometimes they change in appearance.

4.- They react. Living things can perceive what is going on around them, and they react to what they perceive.

5.- They reproduce. Living things can create offspring similar to themselves.

6.- They die. At some time, all living things stop functioning and cease to live.


Life Processes

All living things depend on life processes to stay alive. WE are going to focus on three basic processes:

1.- Nutrition

- Breakfast

- Snack

- Lunch

- Snack

- Dinner


2.- Sensitivity

- Smell

- Hear

- See

- Touch

- Taste


3.- Reproduction

- Male  (boy / man)  +  Female (girl / woman)

- Seeds (In case of plants)

Part II .- CELLS

A cell is the smallest living unit which makes up a living thing. Most cells are very small, so we need a miscroscope to see them.


 Some living things are made up of a single cell. They are called unicellular. They can only be seen with a microscope. In a unicellular organism, the single cell performs all life functions.


Other living things are made up of many cells: They are called multicellular. In a multicellular organism, cells perform specific functions.




All plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose. This wall protects the cell and gives it shape. Most plant cells also have small structures called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is a green substance that is used in photosynthesis.


Animal cells don’t have cell walls or chloroplasts. Animals have different types of cells, like muscle cells, blood cells or nerve cells.





Grammar: Plural (latin words)


“-us” es “-i”: one cactus, five cacti, a fungus, many fungi, the nucleus of a plant, the nuclei of many plants.


Amoeba – Amoebae

Fungus – Fungi

Bacterium – Bacteria

Cactus – Cacti

Nucleus - Nuclei




Are you curious?


Brain Cells are star-shaped.

Fat Cells are round.

Skin Cells are flat.




Let's Review


  1. They produce their own food during photosyntesis.– Plant Kingdom
  2. They produce enzymes to break down natural or organic matter and absorb its nutrients. They eat other living or dead organisms.– Fungi Kingdom
  3. They can move on their own, some of them by changing their shape.– Protista Kingdom
  4. They are unicellular. They can move but they do not produce their own food.– Monera Kingdom
         5.    They are multicellular. They can’t produce their own food. They eat other living organisms.- Animal Kingdom 

Grammar: Both / Neither *


Both animals and fungi can eat other living organisms.

Neither plants nor fungi can move from place to place.




List of Cell Organelles & Their Functions


Most people probably have a general idea of what a cell is, but they might not realize all of the functions that go on inside of these microscopic spaces. Every cell has small organelles within it that perform different tasks.






NUCLEUS.- It is where the hereditary material is located. It controls cellular growth and reproduction.





CELL MEMBRANE .- It is the part of the cell which helps to control what enters and leaves from it.




CHLOROPLAST .- It contains Chlorophyll, this extremely important biomolecule captures energy from the Sun to make food. Plants, algae and main bacteria make their own food through the process of photosynthesis. 



CYTOPLASM .- It's made mostly of water.





MITOCHONDRION.- It's where the cellullar respiration occurs.




VACUOLE .- It's function is similar to a closet (wardrobe). A vacuole stores food, water, and other substances until the cell is ready to use them.

NERVE CELLS .- Their function is to receive and deliver messages.




Cells - Tissues - Organs - Organ Systems



Part III .- Microorganisms


Beneficial Microorganisms vs Harmful Microorganisms





Process of fermentation: Yoghurt, Cheese, Bread, Vinegar, Wine


-  Beneficial Bacteria are found in our intestines and help us digest our food.


-  Bacteria are also used to make vaccines to prevent disease. Some fungia re used to make medicines called antibiotics.


Some microorganisms are decomposers. They produce enzymes that break down dead plants and animals. Microorganisms turn this dead material into nutrients which enter the soil. They are Nature’s way of recycling. This process is called decomposition.






-          Germs are microorganisms that cause disease:


Bacteria: Some reproduce inside our body and cause infections: Sore throats, acne, ear infections and even cavities in our teeth.


Viruses: They need to be inside a living thing, like a plant, animal or person, to grow and reproduce. They spread easily from one person to another: Chickenpox, measles and influenza.


Fungi: Mould is a type of fungi that grows on food or sometimes on our bodies. (Athlete’s Foot)


Amoebae: They spread disease through water. They can cause intestinal infections that give us diarrhoea, nausea or stomach ache.




Beneficial or Harmful?


Germs (Harmful) :


Viruses (Harmful)

Bacteria (Harmful & Beneficial)

Amoebae (Harmful)

Fungi (Harmful & Beneficial)


Antibiotics (Beneficial) ... some are made up of fungi.

Acne (Harmful) ... caused by bacteria.

Digestion (Beneficial) ... thanks to bacteria.

Vaccine (Beneficial) ... some are made up of bacteria.

Diarrhoea (Harmful) ... caused by Amoeba.

Fermentation (Beneficial) ... thanks to bacteria.

Cavities in our teeth (Harmful) ... caused by bacteria.

Athlete's foot (Harmful) ... caused by fungi.

Sore throughts, ear infections (Harmful) ... caused by bacteria.

Chickenpox, measles, flu (Harmful) ... caused by viruses.

Nausea or Stomach ache (Harmful) ... caused by amoebae.





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Useful Videos

Maths & Science
Maths & Science

Science Activities
Science Activities